[42] In 2011 the two species of Diplarche were also added to Rhododendron, incertae sedis.[43]. The species are organized by subgenus, section, subsection and series. Records of the Rhododendron Society of America reside at the Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library at the University of Virginia. Consequently, the taxonomy has been historically complex. [36] Then Judd & Kron moved two species (Rhododendron schlippenbachii, R. quinquefolium) from section Brachybachii, subgenus Tsutsusi and two from section Rhodora, subgenus Pentanthera (R. albrechtii, R. pentaphyllum) into section Sciadorhodion, subgenus Pentanthera. The Garden is open 9.00am - 5.00pm daily except for Christmas day and Good Friday. Eleven similar cases have been documented in Istanbul, Turkey during the 1980s. Rhododendron section Vireya (vireyas) is a tropical group of Rhododendron species, numbering about 300 in all. As new species of what are now considered Rhododendron were discovered, if they seemed to differ significantly from the type species they were assigned to separate genera. Subgenus Pentanthera (deciduous azaleas) with its four sections was dismembered by eliminating two sections and redistributing the other two between the existing subgenera in clades B (Hymenanthes) and C (Azaleastrum), although the name was retained in section Pentanthera (14 species) which was moved to subgenus Hymenanthes. Extensive information on rhododendron species: the history of their discovery, botanical details, toxicity, classification, cultural conditions, care for common problems, and suggestions for companion plants by Steve Henning. Most Vireya rhododendron grow as epiphytes (plants which grow on trees, high in the forest canopy) and Cheryl tried to emulate this in her garden. Reference page. Some hybrids have fragrant flowers[67]—such as the Loderi hybrids, created by crossing Rhododendron fortunei and R. Schistanthe) through the Malayan archipelago: Evidence from nuclear gene sequences. Argent, G. "Rhododendrons of subgenus Vireya". Best grown in shady sites in moist soil. This is one … Rhododendron borers and various weevils are major pests of rhododendrons, and many caterpillars will preferentially devour them. El rododendro o azalea (Rhododendron, del griego: «ῥόδον» rhodon, rosa y «δένδρον» dendron, árbol) es un género de plantas angiospermas perteneciente a la familia Ericaceae, que contiene más de 1000 especies conocidas.Dado que es un género muy extenso, las plantas se organizan en subgéneros, secciones, subsecciones y series. [51] Azaleas are frequently used around foundations and occasionally as hedges, and many larger-leafed rhododendrons lend themselves well to more informal plantings and woodland gardens, or as specimen plants. It is admired for its distinctive flavor and color.[81]. Despite a degree of paraphyly, the subgenus Rhododendron was otherwise untouched with regard to its three sections but four other subgenera were eliminated and one new subgenus created, leaving a total of five subgenera in all, from eight in Chamberlain's scheme. Vireya ندارد. Most species have brightly colored flowers which bloom from late winter through to early summer.[6]. Numbering over 300 species, vireyas can be found growing across much of S.E. Published online. Hall, B.D., L.A. Craven & L.A. Goetsch. Here is a listing of our Virayas. Their work was more supportive of Sleumer's original system than the later modifications introduced by Chamberlain et al..[2][41]. Both species and hybrid rhododendrons (including azaleas) are used extensively as ornamental plants in landscaping in many parts of the world, including both temperate and subtemperate regions. [citation needed], The rhododendron is the national flower of Nepal, where the flower is considered edible and enjoyed for its sour taste. Of the remaining three sections, monotypic Viscidula was discontinued by moving Rhododendron nipponicum to Tsutsusi (C), while Rhodora (2 species) was itself polyphyletic and was broken up by moving Rhododendron canadense to section Pentanthera (B) and Rhododendron vaseyi to section Sciadorhodion, which then became a new section of subgenus Azaleastrum (C). Blumea 53: 435–442. In some species, the undersides of the leaves are covered with scales (lepidote) or hairs (indumentum). Varieties range widely in size and shape of plant, leaf and flowers. Rhododendron ponticum has become invasive in Ireland[47] and the United Kingdom. Rhododendrons can be propagated by air layering or stem cuttings. International Plant Names Index. [11], Although Rhododendrons had been known since the description of Rhododendron hirsutum by Charles de l'Écluse (Clusius) in the sixteenth century, and were known to classical writers (Magor 1990), and referred to as Chamaerhododendron (low-growing rose tree), the genus was first formally described by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum in 1753. [46] Subgenera Rhododendron and Hymenanthes, together with section Pentanthera of subgenus Pentanthera are also represented to a lesser degree in the Mountainous areas of North America and Western Eurasia. Mar 25, 2016 - A comprehensive information resource covering all aspects of Vireya Rhododendron culture, including cultivation advice, background history, classification & distribution, together with complete listings of named hybrids and Photogallery containing over 900 images. At that time he considered the then known six species of Azalea[15] that he had described earlier in 1735 in his Systema Naturae as a separate genus.[16][17]. The industry is promoted by the state government with tax benefits, looking to promote this industry as a full-fledged subclass of its economy. [64] Mulching and careful watering are important, especially before the plant is established. The Species of Rhododendron[26] referred to this series concept as the Balfourian system. Pompey's soldiers reportedly suffered lethal casualties following the consumption of honey made from Rhododendron deliberately left behind by Pontic forces in 67 BCE during the Third Mithridatic War. [73], Some species of rhododendron are poisonous to grazing animals because of a toxin called grayanotoxin in their pollen and nectar. Rhododendron section Vireya (vireyas) is a tropical group of Rhododendron species, numbering about 300 in all. In all, Hymenanthes increased from one to two sections, while Azaleastrum, by losing one section and gaining two increased from two to three sections. The large number of species that were available by the early twentieth century prompted a new approach when Balfour introduced the concept of grouping species into series. ویکی‌پدیا هنوز مقاله‌ای درباره en:Rhododendron sect. Vireya rhododendrons. [9][10], They have frequently been divided based on the presence or absence of scales on the abaxial (lower) leaf surface (lepidote or elepidote). Chief amongst these were Maximovicz's Rhododendreae Asiae Orientali[23] and Planchon. Care. شما می‌توانید با ایجاد آن کمک کنید. (Fayaz). Consequently, the taxonomy has been historically complex.. Major speciation accompanied the dispersal of Vireya Rhododendrons (Ericaceae, Rhododendron sect. Major diseases include Phytophthora root rot, stem and twig fungal dieback; Ohio State University Extension provides information on maintaining health of rhododendrons. vireya (Vireya Rhododendron) Yes, it does! For a fuller story on the Jury vireyas, go to The Jury Vireya Legacy, written for and published by the RHS in 2012. Most have been bred for their flowers, but a few are of garden interest because of ornamental leaves and some for ornamental bark or stems. The four sections of Pentanthera between clades B and C, with two each, while Azaleastrum had one section in each of A and C. Thus subgenera Azaleastrum and Pentanthera needed to be disassembled, and Rhododendron, Hymenanthes and Tsutsusi correspondingly expanded. [72] Xiong et al. (2008)[42] shown in (parenthetical italics). Vireya rhododendron ‘Sweet Vanilla’ with ‘Golden Charm’ in the background. [citation needed], In the language of flowers, the Rhododendron symbolizes danger and to beware.[77]. [2][11][17][38][39], The era of molecular analysis rather than descriptive features can be dated to the work of Kurashige (1988) and Kron (1997) who used matK sequencing. [30][31] In 1986 Philipson & Philipson raised two sections of subgenus Aleastrum (Mumeazalea, Candidastrum) to subgenera, while reducing genus Therorhodion to a subgenus of Rhododendron. It is the national flower of Nepal, the state flower of Washington and West Virginia in the United States, the provincial flower of Jiangxi in China and the state tree of Sikkim and Uttarakhand in India. Australian Systematic Botany 19, 329–342. ", "Rescuing the Ghent and Rustica Flore Pleno Azaleas", "Soil information for planting rhododendrons", "Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas", "Anti-inflammatory activity of flowers of, "Rhododendron poison – truth behind the science of Sherlock Holmes", "Language of Flowers – Flower Meanings and Flower Sentiments", "Shades of Grey – An Interview with Jasper Fforde about Shades of Grey", "Conservation of Rhododendron Species and their historic Gardens", "Historical Survey of Rhododendron Collecting With Emphasis on its Close Associations with Horticulture", "The Discovery of the Malaysian Rhododendrons", "Evolution, Adaptive Radiation and Vireya Rhododendrons - Part I", "Evolution, Adaptive Radiation and Vireya Rhododendrons – Part II", Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, History of Rhododendron Discovery & Culture, Description of damage caused by Rhododendrons in the UK. Later, it was recognized that honey resulting from these plants has a slightly hallucinogenic and laxative effect. . Meanwhile, other botanists such as Salisbury (1796)[19] and Tate (1831)[20] began to question the distinction between Azalea and Rhododendron, and finally in 1836, Azalea was incorporated into Rhododendron[21] and the genus divided into eight sections. 2020. Asia, principally in New Guinea, Borneo, Sulawesi, Sumatra and the … [80]:53 The juice of rhododendron flower is used to make a squash called burans (named after the flower) in the hilly regions of Uttarakhand. [2], The 300 tropical species within the Vireya section of subgenus Rhododendron occupy the Malay archipelago from their presumed Southeast Asian origin to Northern Australia, with 55 known species in Borneo and 164 in New Guinea. DOI: 10.3767/000651908X608070 Naturalis Reference page. People have been known to become ill from eating honey made by bees feeding on rhododendron and azalea flowers. [33], A number of closely related genera had been included together with Rhododendron in a former tribe, Rhodoreae. There are over 28,000 cultivars of Rhododendron in the International Rhododendron Registry held by the Royal Horticultural Society. Rhododendron macrophyllum, a widespread rhododendron of the Pacific Northwest, is the state flower of the US state of Washington. [2], Rhododendron are characterised by having inflorescences with scarious (dry) perulae, a chromosome number of x=13, fruit that has a septicidal capsule, an ovary that is superior (or nearly so), stamens that have no appendages, and agglutinate (clumped) pollen. The remaining four subgenera contain very few species. Many hybrids have been produced, some are very fragrant, and most are ideal for container growing on a balcony, on (or under) a tree, or in a shadehouse.… [4] Con 80-117 especies, incluye tanto tipos de hoja caduca como de hoja perenne y se distribuye en Japón, China y el noreste de Asia. There are alpine species with small flowers and small leaves, and tropical species such as section Vireya that often grow as epiphytes. [2], Vireya are morphologically diverse, and characterised by seeds with tailed appendages, the presence of leaf idioblasts and capsule valves which twist upon opening.[4]. Schistanthe" The following 3 files are in this category, out of 3 total. Species in this genus may be part of the heath complex in oak-heath forests in eastern North America. Evolution, Adaptive Radiation and Vireya Rhododendrons - Part I. JARS FALL 2012 pp. giganteum, reported to 30 m (100 ft) tall. 10.1071/SB05019, Chris Callard. The major finding of Goetsch and colleagues was that all species examined (except R. camtschaticum, subgenus Therorhodion) formed three major clades which they labelled A, B and C, with the subgenera Rhododendron and Hymenanthes nested within clades A and B as monophyletic groups respectively. The discontinued subgenera are Pentanthera, Tsutsusi, Candidastrum and Mumeazalea, while a new subgenus was created by elevating subgenus Azaleastrum section Choniastrum to subgenus rank. Sleumer's system underwent many revisions by others, predominantly the Edinburgh group in their continuing Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh notes. The tropical rhododendrons (sect. Rhododendron laetum is a rhododendron species native to the Anggi Lakes area of the Arfak Mountains in Indonesia and western New Guinea, where it grows at forest edges, in open marsh, and in swamps at the edge of lakes. He brought back a… Rhododendron arboreum is also the state tree of the state of Uttarakhand, India. [45] The largest of these is subgenus Rhododendron, containing nearly half of all known species and all of the lepidote species. Discover (and save!) It is a shrub that grows to 3 m in height, with leaves that are broadly elliptic or sub-ovate-elliptic, 40–95 × 25–53 mm in size. [1][14] He listed five species under Rhododendron (Rhododendron ferrugineum (type species), R. dauricum, R. hirsutum, R. chamaecistus (now Rhodothamnus chamaecistus (L.) Rchb.) [1] 201-3, Peter Adams. 杜鵑花在臺灣主要分佈在北部,陽明山國家公園內多為日治時期引入的平戶杜鵑、皋月杜鵑、西洋杜鵑等品種 。 目前宜蘭等縣市也廣植杜鵑花。 台灣南部的大武杜鵑及丁香杜鵑為原生種。 及分布全島生長於樹上的著生杜鵑,另有原生種玉山杜鵑。. Rhopalostylis sapida (Nikau) This native palm is truly iconic. Most rhododendron flowers are bell-shaped and have 10 stamens. proposed there be only two subsections of Vireya, corresponding to the core species, Euvireya and the much smaller Malayovireya , while the other two groups formed out of Pseudovireya be raised to section rank, keeping the original name Pseudovireya for the mainland species, and using Argent's name, Discovireya for the Malesian species. griffithianum. (2005) with RPB2,[2] there began an ongoing realignment of species and groups within the genus, based on evolutionary relationships. Rhododendron subsp. [2][11][30] These consist of four large and four small subgenera. Thus two subgenera, Hymenanthes and Azaleastrum were expanded at the expense of four subgenera that were eliminated, although Azaleastrum lost one section (Choniastrum) as a new subgenus, since it was a distinct subclade in A. With only a couple of exceptions, we have at least one of all of these growing in our gardens. Flower colour varies also, and many are beautifully perfumed. (2005)[2] this scheme was simplified, based on the discovery of three major clades (A, B, C) as follows. صفحه‌ای که اکنون می‌بینید شامل اطلاعاتی درباره آرایه‌شناسی Rhododendron sect. The effects of R. ponticum was mentioned in the 2009 film Sherlock Holmes as a proposed way to arrange a fake execution. QTY: PAGE 1 ALL . Rhododendron je nacionalni cvet Nepala. 74-76, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rhododendron_sect._Vireya&oldid=982412614, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 October 2020, at 00:04. While Sleumer's work was widely accepted, many in the United States and the United Kingdom continued to use the simpler Balfourian system of the Edinburgh group. View fullsize. The species in New Guinea are native to subalpine moist grasslands at around 3,000 metres above sea level in the Central Highlands. have found that the root of the plant is able to reduce the activity of NF-κB in rats. Por ejemplo Rhodora (Linnaeus 1763) para Rhododendron canadense, Vireya ( Blume 1826) y Hymenanthes (Blume 1826) para Rhododendron metternichii, ahora R. degronianum. Subgenus Tsutsusi is found in the maritime regions of East Asia (Japan, Korea, Taiwan, East China), but not in North America or Eurasia.[2][24]. 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