Eparchos (GR): officer. At the decisive Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), the Thebans routed the allied army. Kryptès (GR): 'secret agent'; Spartan who roamed covertly through the territory to look for signs of possible helot rebelliousness. Homozygos (GR): soldier from the same rank. Rhomphaia (GR): slashing blade; falchion. Lochos (GR): (1) military unit; (2) file of men. Amrtaka (PE): ‘Immortals’; Persian royal foot guards. Since the soldiers were citizens with other occupations, warfare was limited in distance, season and scale. Spartans instead relied on slaves called helots for civilian jobs such as farming. Systasis (GR): light infantry platoon. Campaigns were often timed with the agricultural season to impact the enemies or enemies' crops and harvest. Gerrhon (GR): wicker shield. When in combat, the whole formation would consistently press forward trying to break the enemy formation; thus, when two phalanx formations engaged, the struggle essentially became a pushing match,[4] in which, as a rule, the deeper phalanx would almost always win, with few recorded exceptions. It scouted, screened, harassed, outflanked and pursued with the most telling moment being the use of Syracusan horse to harass and eventually destroy the retreating Athenian army of the disastrous Sicilian expedition 415-413 B.C. Greece currently has universal compulsory Modern Military service for males, under which all men above 18 years of age serve for 9 months. Hoplites were armored infantrymen, armed with spears and shields, and the phalanx was a formation of these soldiers with their shields locked together and spears pointed forward. The rise of Macedon and her successors thus sounded the death knell for the distinctive way of war found in Ancient Greece; and instead contributed to the 'superpower' warfare which would dominate the ancient world between 350 and 150 BC. Anabasis (GR): march inland. Xystophoros (GR): spearman. Diekplous (GR): naval manoeuvre to break an enemy’s line. How Ancient Sparta's Harsh Military System Trained Boys Into Fierce Warriors The Greek city-state imposed brutal training and contests that began at age 7. It could throw 300 pound stones at walls and buildings Greek Military This is a hoplite, a Greek infantry soldier. Pais basilikos (GR): royal page. Embolon (GR): (1) wedge formation; (2) ship’s beak or ram. The second phase, an Athenian expedition to attack Syracuse in Sicily achieved no tangible result other than a large loss of Athenian ships and men. Stratiootès (GR): soldier. Pezon (GR): infantry. All Greek words have been transcribed in the Latin alphabet. Nautès (GR): sailor. Machaira (GR): sword. After burning Eretria, the Persians landed at Marathon. Hoplitès (GR): heavy armed soldier; hoplite. Tropaion (GR): trophy; commemorative victory sign erected to mark the turning of the tide of battle. Sitarchia (GR): ration allowance. Between 356 and 342 BC Phillip conquered all city states in the vicinity of Macedon, then Thessaly and then Thrace. Hèlootès (GR): helot; serf from the subjugated population of the Spartan state. Plèrooma (GR): ship's crew. Anaklèsis (GR): retreat; withdrawal. Militaris cibus: military food. Nyktophylax (GR): night guard. Automolos (GR): deserter. Stratiootès (GR): soldier. Kakos (GR): coward. Synoomotia (GR): file; squad. Argyraspis (GR): ‘silvershield’; title of Macedonian infantry guard which is probably identical with the hypaspistai (GR). it’s A 28 letters crossword definition. Armies marched directly to their target, possibly agreed on by the protagonists. After they refused to disband their army, an army of approximately 10,000 Spartans and Pelopennesians marched north to challenge the Thebans. Drepanèphoros (GR): scythed chariot. Stratiootika (GR): (1) military affairs; (2) military service. Helepolis (GR): siege tower. The Macedonian phalanx was a supreme defensive formation, but was not intended to be decisive offensively; instead, it was used to pin down the enemy infantry, whilst more mobile forces (such as cavalry) outflanked them. Hyparchos (GR): officer. Paian (GR): battle song. Drepanon (GR): battle-scythe. Hypèretès (GR): officer. Agora - The agora was the central meeting place in Ancient Greek cities. Pèdalia (GR): pair of rudders. Kybernètès (GR): helmsman. Kestrosphendonè (GR): special type of bolt used by slingers as a short range missile. The eventual triumph of the Greeks was achieved by alliances of many city-states, on a scale never seen before. ), Hoplites, London: 1991, pp. Although alliances between city states occurred before this time, nothing on this scale had been seen before. ), Atlas of the Classical World, London: Nelson, 1959. The Delian League (hereafter 'Athenians') were primarily a naval power, whereas the Peloponnesian League (hereafter 'Spartans') consisted of primarily land-based powers. The secondary weapon of a hoplite was the xiphos, a short sword used when the soldier's spear was broken or lost while fighting. Fighting in the tight phalanx formation maximised the effectiveness of his armor, large shield and long spear, presenting a wall of armor and spearpoints to the enemy. The military history of ancient Greece is the history of the wars and battles of the Greek people in Greece, the Balkans and the Greek colonies in the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea prior to 400 AD. Thèrarchia (GR): elephant unit Exeligmos Makedonikos (GR): ‘Macedonian counter-march’; manoeuvre in which the file-leader does an about-face on the spot and the rear-rankers counter-march to form up behind him. Pezhetairos (GR): ‘foot companion’; Macedonian heavy infantryman. Paragoogè (GR): march in line. gulf of corinth Which member of Spartan society best fits this statement: "Strict training was necessary to encourage military discipline and loyalty to Sparta." The Greco-Persian Wars (499–448 BC) were the result of attempts by the Persian Emperor Darius the Great, and then his successor Xerxes I to subjugate Ancient Greece. Stratopedeusis (GR): naval formation. Tès hippou stratègos: ‘general of the cavalry’; cf. In the aftermath, the Spartans were able to establish themselves as the dominant force in Greece for three decades. Exeligmos Lakoonikos (GR): ‘Laconian counter-march’; manoeuvre in which the file-closer does an about-face on the spot and the file-leader leads his men past the file-closer. They were a force to be reckoned with. Thyreos (GR): shield. Every man had to serve at least two years in the army. The Roman Army Page Anaklètikon (GR): signal to retreat. Antilabè (GR): grip of a shield. Distinct meanings of the same word are indicated by numbers between brackets. Syssition (GR): ‘dining group’; Spartan military mess association. Trièrarchos (GR): (1) captain commanding a trireme; (2) wealthy citizen providing a trireme at his cost. Xenagos (GR): mercenary commander. Pelekophoros (GR): axe-man. Ancient Greek civilization, the period following Mycenaean civilization, which ended about 1200 BCE, to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BCE. Syntagma (GR): ‘building block’; military unit; battalion. Stichos (GR): (1) row; (2) file. Syskènion (GR): ‘tent party’; Spartan military mess association. Hamippos (GR): infantry skirmisher fighting mixed with the cavalry. [2] Although very heavy (8–15 kg or 18–33 lb), the design of this shield was such that it could be supported on the shoulder. Porpax (GR): arm-band of a shield. Speira (GR): military unit. The Athenian dominated Delian League of cities and islands extirpated Persian garrisons from Macedon and Thrace, before eventually freeing the Ionian cities from Persian rule. Pheidition (GR): Spartan military mess association. Epimelètès (GR): officer. Misthophoros (GR): mercenary. Asapatish (PE): cavalry commander. 201–232. Aspis (GR): shield. Following the eventual defeat of the Athenians in 404 BC, and the disbandment of the Athenian-dominated Delian League, Ancient Greece fell under the hegemony of Sparta. Parke, Herbert W., Greek Mercenary Soldiers: From the Earliest Times to the Battle of Ipsus, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. Tetrarchia (GR): unit of four files. Greek training methods meant running long distances, using their body weight and ingenuity. Stratègion (LA): commander's tent. ), War and Society in the Greek World, London: Routledge, 1993, pp. This allowed diversification of the allied armed forces, rather than simply mustering a very large hoplite army. Hippotoxotès (GR): horse archer. [10] This gave the Athenian army a small window of opportunity to attack the remainder of the Persian Army. 'Hoplite' can be translated as 'man-at-arms'. Sekunda, Nick, Elite 66: The Spartan Army, Oxford: Osprey, 1998. A united Macedonian empire did not long survive Alexander's death, and soon split into the Hellenistic kingdoms of the Diadochi (Alexander's generals). In ancient times, Greece wasn't a single country like it is today. The second major challenge Sparta faced was fatal to its hegemony, and even to its position as a first-rate power in Greece. Although by the end of the Theban hegemony the cities of southern Greece were severely weakened, they might have risen again had it not been for the ascent to power of the Macedonian kingdom in northern Greece. Nautikon (GR): fleet; navy. Skène (GR): tent; barracks building. 83–124. Peltastès (GR): shieldbearing javelineer. Militia: equestrian term of military service. Warfare occurred throughout the history of Ancient Greece, from the Greek Dark Ages onward. Campaigns would therefore often be restricted to summer. Sparabara (PE): ‘shield-bearer’; Persian soldier. Aporthètos (GR): unconquered; unplundered. Ekdromos (GR): 'out runner'; hoplite leaving the phalanx (GR) formation to chase light troops. Pezakontistès (GR): infantry skirmisher; javelineer. 85, 1965, pp. Cheir (GR): arm protector. [1] Hoplites were the citizen-soldiers of the Ancient Greek City-states (except Spartans who were professional soldiers). Pentèkostys (GR): ‘unit of fifty’; military unit. [9] Darius thus sent his commanders Datis and Artaphernes to attack Attica, to punish Athens for her intransigence. Perioikos (GR): ‘one living about’; ally. Greek armies gradually downgraded the armor of the hoplites (to linen padded thorax and open helmets) to make the phalanx more flexible and upgraded the javelineers to lightly armored general purpose infantry (thorakitai and thyreophoroi) with javelins and sometimes spears. (Mnemosyne, Supplements 409). Misthos (GR): pay. Interscalmium (LA): space between two tholes in oared ship. Psilos (GR): light equipped soldier; skirmisher. Sphagia (GR): pre-battle sacrifice. The Phalanx therefore presented a shield wall and a mass of spear points to the enemy, making frontal assaults much more difficult. Chiliostys (GR): ‘unit of thousand’; military unit. However, the Spartans suffered a large setback when their fleet was wiped out by a Persian Fleet at the Battle of Cnidus, undermining the Spartan presence in Ionia. Kausia (GR): Macedonian hat. Soldiers and Ghosts brings to life the most decisive military contests of ancient Greece and Rome. Hieros lochos (GR): ‘Sacred band’; Theban elite formation composed of 150 couples of male lovers. Strateuma (GR): military campaign. Halysidootos (GR): mail coat. The persuasive qualities of the phalanx were probably its relative simplicity (allowing its use by a citizen militia), low fatality rate (important for small city-states), and relatively low cost (enough for each hoplite to provide his own equipment). Paramèridion (GR): (1) side-arm; (2) thigh armour. They took their name from the capital city of their land, Mycenae. The phalanx formed the core of ancient Greek militaries. Epikouros (GR): auxiliary. Keleusthès (GR): naval officer responsible for setting and maintaining the rowing speed. Anastrophè (GR): (1) back-turn; (2) wheeling manoeuvre. One example of their legacy is the Olympic Games. The remainder of the wars saw the Greeks take the fight to the Persians. Hoplon (GR): weapon, both offensive and defensive; note this word is often used in modern literature as a technical term for the hoplite shield when in fact this was by no means the case in Antiquity. This is one of the first known examples of both the tactic of local concentration of force, and the tactic of 'refusing a flank'. Doryphoros (GR): (1) spearman; (2) guard. Following the death of Epaminondas and loss of manpower at the Battle of Mantinea, the Theban hegemony ceased. Harmostès (GR): Spartan governor. Krypteia (GR): ‘secret service’; Spartan death squad for keeping the helots in check. Sekunda, Nick, Warrior 27: Greek Hoplite 480–323 BC, Oxford: Osprey, 2000. Pelekys (GR): battle-axe or warhammer. With this evolution in warfare, battles seem to have consisted mostly of the clash of hoplite phalanxes from the city-states in conflict. Hanson, Victor D., "Hoplite Battle as Ancient Greek Warfare: When, Where, and Why?" Dilochia (GR): double-file. Katapeltaphetès (GR): (1) artilleryman; (2) artillery instructor. There are other daily puzzles for July 3 2017 Mystic Words: Ancient Greek military power Mystic words; Noisy opposition Mystic words Asthetairos (GR): ‘city companion’; title borne by Macedonian infantryman, possibly an alternative name for the pezhetairoi (GR) from the northern districts of the kingdom. Spolas (GR): type of soft body armour; either a leather or linen corselet or a thickly woven tunic. Pezikon (GR): infantry. Protaxis (GR): skirmishing line; covering force. Akropolis (GR): citadel; fortified part of a city. Lazenby, John F., "The Killing Zone," in Victor D. Hanson, (ed. Karda (PE): warlike spirit. Only when a Persian force managed to outflank them by means of a mountain track was the allied army overcome; but by then Leonidas had dismissed the majority of the troops, remaining with a rearguard of 300 Spartans (and perhaps 2000 other troops), in the process making one of history's great last stands. Spolia (LA): spoils; plunder. Thucydides described hoplite warfare as othismos aspidon or "the push of shields". Prometoopidion (GR): chamfron; horse armour for protection of the head. Emphasis shifted to naval battles and strategies of attrition such as blockades and sieges. In the third phase of the war however the use of more sophisticated stratagems eventually allowed the Spartans to force Athens to surrender. Phylax (GR): guard; sentry. Wheeler, E., "The General as Hoplite," in Hanson, Victor D., (ed. At one point, the Greeks even attempted an invasion of Cyprus and Egypt (which proved disastrous), demonstrating a major legacy of the Persian Wars: warfare in Greece had moved beyond the seasonal squabbles between city-states, to coordinated international actions involving huge armies. Rhoomaios (GR): Roman. To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state. The Spartans did not feel strong enough to impose their will on a shattered Athens. Lakedaimoon (GR): name of Spartan state. Cartledge, Paul, The Spartans: The World of the Warrior-Heroes of Ancient Greece, from Utopia to Crisis and Collapse, New York, NY: Vintage, 2004. After the loss of Athenian ships and men in the Sicilian expedition, Sparta was able to foment rebellion amongst the Athenian league, which therefore massively reduced the ability of the Athenians to continue the war. Finally Phillip sought to establish his own hegemony over the southern Greek city-states, and after defeating the combined forces of Athens and Thebes, the two most powerful states, at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, succeeded. Traditionally, this has been dated to the 8th century BC, and attributed to Sparta; but more recent views suggest a later date, towards the 7th century BC[citation needed]. Soldiers with Delta Company line up to take part in morning team development exercises Nov. 7, … This 'combined arms' approach was furthered by the extensive use of skirmishers, such as peltasts. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16. Symmachos (GR): ally. The losses in the ten years of the Theban hegemony left all the Greek city-states weakened and divided. These changes greatly increased the number of casualties and the disruption of Greek society. Stratia (GR): army. Latin magister equitum, a senior late Roman commander. Tactically the Peloponnesian war represents something of a stagnation; the strategic elements were most important as the two sides tried to break the deadlock, something of a novelty in Greek warfare. This puzzle was found on Daily pack. Many city-states made their submission to him, but others did not, notably including Athens and Sparta. Phygè (GR): flight. To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state. The Greek comes from aggelion which simply means "message or news." The Greek navy, despite their lack of experience, also proved their worth holding back the Persian fleet whilst the army still held the pass. The two phalanxes would smash into each other in hopes of quickly breaking the enemy force's line. As the Thebans attempted to expand their influence over Boeotia, they inevitably incurred the ire of Sparta. However, such were the losses of Theban manpower, including Epaminondas himself, that Thebes was thereafter unable to sustain its hegemony. Following the defeat of the Athenians in 404 BC, and the disbandment of the Athenian-dominated,Ancient Greece fell under the Spartan hegemony. The city-states of southern Greece were too weak to resist the rise of the Macedonian kingdom in the north. Lithobolos (GR): ‘stonethrower’; torsion gun. Demoralised, Xerxes returned to Asia Minor with much of his army, leaving his general Mardonius to campaign in Greece the following year (479 BC). Militia armata: armed military service; as opposed to service in the late Roman civil service. Taxiarchos: senior military officer; Greek equivalent of Roman tribunus. The battle is famous for the tactical innovations of the Theban general Epaminondas. Hippos (GR): horse. Pteryges (GR): ‘wings’; linen or leather strips used to decorate or protect the upper arms and lower body. 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